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Mengenal Tanaman karet 7 Desember 2009

Posted by Arif in kebunku.
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Karet adalah tanaman perkebunan tahunan berupa pohon batang lurus. Pohon karet pertama kali hanya tumbuh di Brasil, Amerika Selatan, namun setelah percobaan berkali-kali oleh Henry Wickham, pohon ini berhasil dikembangkan di Asia Tenggara, di mana sekarang ini tanaman ini banyak dikembangkan sehingga sampai sekarang Asia merupakan sumber karet alami. Di Indonesia, Malaysia dan Singapura tanaman karet mulai dicoba dibudidayakan pada tahun 1876. Tanaman karet pertama di Indonesia ditanam di Kebun Raya Bogor. Indonesia pernah menguasai produksi karet dunia, namun saat ini posisi Indonesia didesak oleh dua negara tetangga Malaysia dan Thailand. Lebih dari setengah karet yang digunakan sekarang ini adalah sintetik, tetapi beberapa juta ton karet alami masih diproduksi setiap tahun, dan masih merupakan bahan penting bagi beberapa industri termasuk otomotif dan militer.

Klasifikasi botani tanaman karet adalah sebagai berikut:

Divisi : Spermatophyta
Sub divisi : Angiospermae
Kelas : Dicotyledonae
Keluarga : Euphorbiaceae
Genus : Hevea
Spesies : Hevea brasiliensis

Tanaman karet merupakan tanaman perkebunan yang tumbuh di berbagai wilayah di Indonesia. Karet merupakan produk dari proses penggumpalan getah tanaman karet (lateks). Pohon karet normal disadap pada tahun ke-5. Produk dari penggumpalan lateks selanjutnya diolah untuk menghasilkan lembaran karet (sheet), bongkahan (kotak), atau karet remah (crumb rubber) yang merupakan bahan baku industri karet. Ekspor karet dari Indonesia dalam berbagai bentuk, yaitu dalam bentuk bahan baku industri (sheet, crumb rubber, SIR) dan produk turunannya seperti ban, komponen, dan sebagainya.

Hasil karet biasa dimanfaatkan atau diolah menjadi beberapa produk antara lain adalah : RSS I, RSS II, RSS III, Crumb Rubber, Lump, dan Lateks. Hasil utama dari pohon karet adalah lateks yang dapat dijual atau diperdagangkan di masyarakat berupa lateks segar, slab/koagulasi, ataupun sit asap/sit angin. Selanjutnya produk-produk tersebut akan digunakan sebagai bahan baku pabrik Crumb Rubber/Karet Remah, yang
menghasilkan berbagai bahan baku untuk berbagai industri hilir seperti ban, bola, sepatu, karet, sarung tangan, baju renang, karet gelang, mainan dari karet, dan berbagai produk hilir lainnya.

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